Archive for the ‘Personal Finance’ Category

The Totalization Conundrum: Tax Tips for Employees Abroad

Friday, October 31st, 2014

Taxes are confusing enough when geography isn’t a factor. Now imagine that you are accepting a short-term opportunity as an independent contractor overseas. Do you have any tax obligations while you are away? If so, how should these obligations be managed? Is there a difference between working as an independent contractor overseas versus working as an independent contractor in the United States?

Someone recently reached out to us to find answers to these questions. We researched her question a little further to arrive at the following conclusion: yes – on all counts.

As an independent contractor working overseas for a short period of time you will:

  • Owe self-employment tax
  • Have to pay advanced taxes (i.e. make estimated payments)

In fact, if you are an American citizen, it does not matter if the work you complete is inside or outside the United States, your tax obligations are universal regardless of where in the world you are staying.

That said, the bigger question becomes, will the income you generate be taxed more than once. The answer to this question is: maybe.

For example, if you are working in India, you may be expected to pay into India’s social security program. The good news is that the U.S. has made agreements with many nations to prohibit multiple tax practices from occurring. For income tax purposes, these agreements are called Tax Treaties. When the issue pertains to Social Security purposes, they are called Totalization Agreements.

Why Are Totalization Agreements Important?

A Totalization Agreement is meant to improve Social Security protection for those who have worked (or are working) in multiple countries. The agreement essentially provides a way to manage how taxes are distributed and how workers are credited for the progress made toward their Social Security benefits (or similar programs abroad) between the two or more countries in which the employee has worked.

Again, using India as the example, because no Totalization Agreement exists, a U.S. citizen working in India should be prepared to pay in to each country’s social security program. This isn’t the case in countries where Totalization Agreements are in place.

A U.S. citizen working in the Canadian Province of Quebec, as an independent contractor, for example, would only be obligated to pay U.S. Social Security taxes. In this example, a Totalization Agreement between Quebec and America would also mean:

  • A self-employed American citizen working in Quebec would not have to pay in to Quebec’s social security program.
  • The taxes and Social Security accumulated by an employee of an American company working in Quebec would be distributed by the American company to the U.S. government.

You can learn more about the Totalization Agreement between the United States and Quebec here. Or you can view a list of countries with Totalization Agreements in place with the U.S. here.

Additional Deductions Are Available

Even though Americans working in India may be required to pay into social security programs in both countries, a Tax Treaty protects U.S. citizens from paying income taxes to both countries. Additionally, there are other ways to find tax savings as an employee working overseas.

  • Even though you may be required to pay into the county’s social security program, this cost can likely be deducted per the foreign tax credit, which was established to assist American taxpayers who find themselves working from countries where Totalization Agreements are not in place – such as India.
  • If you are planning a temporary absence from your tax home in the U.S. for business, your away-from-home expenses may also be deductible. So keep track of your travel, meal and lodging costs.

If you are an American working overseas who is struggling with the tax obligations between your country of residence and your country of employment, email Rea & Associates today. Our tax professionals will help you identify your tax obligations while you are abroad and can help you successfully deduct business-related expenses on your next tax return.

Author: Ben Jonard (Dublin office)

 

Related Articles

Getting Back To Business: How Outsourcing May Provide Relief To Your Business

Ready, Set, Download: IRS2Go Mobile App 2014

Do You Export? Lower Your Taxes with IC-DISC

Share Button

Are You Prepared To Pay?: Obamacare’s Shared Responsibility Provision

Tuesday, October 21st, 2014

American businesses have been feeling the push and pull of Obamacare on their bottom lines for a while. Now, it’s time for individuals who chose to forego health insurance coverage to see what the individual shared responsibility provision has in store for them. If you did not have insurance coverage in 2014, you may need to send a little more money to the IRS when you go to file your 2014 federal tax return.

The individual shared responsibility provision became active in 2014 and, absent an exemption, requires individuals to pay a fee into the system if they choose not to carry health care insurance.

An exemption may be granted if:

  • The minimum cost for your premiums totals over 8 percent of your household’s total income.
  • You have had a gap in your health insurance coverage for less than three consecutive months.
  • You have a hardship that prevented you from obtaining coverage.
  • You are a member of certain religious groups (e.g. Amish) and you have Supplemental Security Income (SSI) exemption on file.
  • There are several other criteria and fine print you can see here.

According to the IRS, your shared responsibility payment for 2014 will either be “the greater of one percent of the household’s income above the income filing threshold for your tax filing status, or a flat dollar amount of $95 per adult and $47.50 per child (under the age of 18) – but no more than $285 per family. The individual shared responsibility payment is also capped at the cost of the national average premium for bronze level health plans available through the health insurance marketplace that would cover everyone in your family who does not have minimum essential coverage and does not qualify for an exemption – for example, $12,240 for a family of five.”  This fee will increase in future years.

As you prepare to file your 2014 federal tax return, here are a few things to keep in mind:

  • You must make the IRS aware of whether your household had minimum essential coverage for each month in 2014. This can be done by checking a box identified on your tax return document.
  • If your household qualified for an exemption in 2014, an additional form must be attached to your tax return, which will provide the IRS with the information needed to approve the exemption claim.
  • Those required to make an individual shared responsibility payment, must make the payment when you submit your federal tax return to the IRS.

If you’re unsure whether you qualify for an exemption or need help calculating how much you will owe to the government when making your shared responsibility payment, email Rea & Associates. We can help you determine how the shared responsibility provision will affect you.

Author: Joe Popp, JD, LLM (Dublin)

 

Interested in other Obamacare-related posts? Check these out:

Health Insurance Options: Shop, Drop, Roll, or Self-insure?

How Will ACA Federal Exchange Premiums Affect Ohio Small Businesses And Consumers?

With The Affordable Care Act ‘Pay Or Play’ Provision Delayed, I Don’t Have To Do Anything Until 2015, Right? Wrong!

Share Button

Ready, Set, Download: IRS2Go Mobile App 2014

Monday, October 20th, 2014

In June, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) made the 2014 version of IRS2Go available to mobile users. This free app can help you stay on top of your federal income tax refund. You can also request your tax return or account transcript or receive tips and updates from the IRS via the app.

Benefits of IRS2GO App

Compatible with Apple and Android devices, the IRS2Go mobile app has been redesigned and includes several new and updated features, such as:

  • IRS2Go makes it easier for individuals to check their refunds at a time that’s convenient for them. To get there, just click on “Refund Status,” enter your Social Security Number (which is masked for security purposes), then select your filing status and the amount of your anticipated refund. The new “status tracker” allows users to identify where their return is in the tax return process. NOTE: Returns filed electronically can be viewed 24 hours after the return was received by the IRS. Paper returns take longer to process and can take up to four weeks before their status is available to view.
  • Another helpful feature is your ability to request your tax records or your account transcript. While, for security reasons, the records cannot be viewed immediately on your Smartphone or device, the request will be processed and your records will be delivered promptly to the address on record.
  • If you need help preparing your tax return, IRS2Go helps users find IRS Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) or Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) programs by simply entering a ZIP code and mileage range.
  • Users also have the opportunity to stay connected, view more content and interact directly with IRS on Twitter, YouTube, Facebook or by signing up for email updates.

To download the IRS2Go app on your Apple iPhone, iPad or iPod Touch device, visit the iTunes app store. To download IRS2Go on your Android devise, visit the Google Play store.

 
By Kelly Leslie, CPA (Cambridge office)

 

Related Articles

Where’s Your Tax Refund?

What’s The Relationship Between Side-Businesses And Tax Deductions?

Share Button

IRS Says You Owe More? Don’t Write That Check Yet!

Tuesday, September 23rd, 2014

Tax season can be rough for any business. Just about the time you allow yourself to move on to something else and breathe a sigh of relief … it happens. You sift through your mail and find yourself staring face-to-face with a letter from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). In a matter of seconds your adrenaline levels are through the roof. You know that what’s inside the envelope isn’t a simple thank-you note for filing your taxes on time. You carefully tear it open.

Nobody likes to hear that they have to pay more to the IRS than they originally thought. But, before you jump to conclusions and quickly write out a check for the amount the letter says you owe:

  • Stop
  • Take a deep breath
  • Call your financial advisor

4 Tips For Resolving Your Tax Dispute

Believe it or not, the IRS does make mistakes. Agents can accidentally input incorrect information, computers can misread data and tax codes can be inadvertently overlooked or misinterpreted. It happens. If you believe that the IRS was wrong in a decision it made about your business’s tax returns, follow these four steps to reach a resolution.

  1. Follow Instructions. Sometimes the easiest way to resolve the issue is to follow the instructions. Sounds easy enough, but not everybody gets this part right. If the IRS sent you a notice, look for the section that explains what to do if you disagree with their decision and follow directions. Additionally, be sure to attach any supporting documentation and mail it back to the address given by the deadline requested. After the IRS has made its decision, you will be notified via U.S. Mail. When in doubt, opt to send inquiries to the IRS via certified mail and request a receipt.
  2. Make The Call. If your initial challenge was rejected, your next step is to follow up with a phone call. The rejection notice you received should have included another important piece of information: the contact name and number of the IRS employee who rejected your challenge. When you call, in a polite and professional manner, ask to speak to the employee’s manager. Even though you are passing over the employee on the chain of command, take care not to say anything about why you are asking to speak with their supervisor. The last thing you need is to create animosity. When you finally have the opportunity to speak with a supervisor, your case should be laid out in much the same way as your original challenge. You should be clear and concise in your explanation while taking care to address any concerns that were noted by the original employee in their rejection letter. If your letter didn’t include an employee’s name and phone number, send another certified letter to a general supervisor with the agency and request that they reconsider your case.
  3. Appealing To A Higher Office. If you still haven’t convinced the IRS to change its mind, don’t give up – even if you have already mailed several letters and racked up a lot of call time with the agency. Further up the chain of command is the Office of Appeals, an independent office within the IRS. This is just one more step you have to take on your journey to find an IRS employee who agrees with your. To get your case to the Office of Appeals, follow the instructions that were found in the earlier notices. If you are unable to locate these instructions, you can find them on the IRS website.
  4. Welcome to U.S. Tax Court. Sometimes a resolution can’t be achieved in the first three steps of the appeal process. If you find yourself in this situation your final option is to take the case to the U.S. Tax Court. At this point you may be discouraged and may even question whether you should continue on with the fight, but if you still believe that the IRS is wrong it is probably in your best interest to see it out to the end.

If your dispute is less than $50,000 you will have the option to represent yourself. Similar to how a small-claims court operates, there is no jury and the judge will not hold your inexperience against you. Once court is in session you will state your case again, provide evidence and answer any questions a judge may ask about the claim. Be advised, however, that once a decision is made at this phase it is final and cannot be appealed.

Sometimes, even though you have decided that you want to move forward, an IRS attorney may offer to settle out of court for a figure less than what the IRS says you owe. If this happens, you need to decide whether you will accept the settlement or if you will move forward with presenting your case to the judge. The choice is yours.

If you find yourself at odds with the IRS over a tax issue and are not sure how to proceed, email Rea & Associates for more information.

Author: Clayton W. Rose, III, CPA

 

Related Articles:

How Far Back Can The IRS Go For Tax Auditing?

Are You Having Trouble Staying Current With Payroll Taxes?

Does Your Company Have Strong Internal Controls?

Share Button

College Costs Keeping You Up All Night? Tax Credits Could Offer Relief

Tuesday, September 2nd, 2014

As a parent you have spent countless hours preparing your child for adulthood. You have thumbed through your share of board books, mastered the art of singing The ABC Song and Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star on a whim, and have racked up enough mileage driving back and forth from piano lessons, soccer games and summer camps to make a space shuttle cringe. But now it’s here. After nearly 18 years, your son or daughter has become a college student.

Many parents describe this milestone moment as bittersweet; others say they are caught off guard by feelings of anxiety and sadness. And while all parents are proud of their child’s accomplishment, it’s hard not to feel a little buyer’s remorse when you see the statement for the first semester in the mail – especially if you offered to pick up the tab.

College is not cheap, and according to the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES), it’s only getting more costly. The NCES reported that the prices for an undergraduate to attend college at a public institution rose 40 percent between the 2001-02 and 2011-12 academic years; a student who chose to attend a private nonprofit institution saw a 28 percent increase over the same period. The report found that an average undergraduate student paid $14,300 annually for their tuition, room and board at a public institution while a student attending a private for-profit school paid $23,300 per year. And those numbers don’t include the price of books, meals, transportation, insurance, and extracurricular activities … to name a few.

Consider A Tax Credit

Don’t abandon ship just yet. Here are three tips to help give your bank account a break.

  • Utilize the American Opportunity Tax Credit or the Lifetime Learning Credit. These two tax credits could help take the edge off of your initial statement shock. If you qualify for the American Opportunity Tax Credit, you could save up to $2,500 annually for an eligible student during their first four years of school. Because 40 percent of this credit is refundable, you may be able to get up to $1,000 of the credit as a refund. The Lifetime Learning Credit, on the other hand, gives you the opportunity to claim up to $2,000 on your federal tax return and has no limit on the number of years it can be claimed. If you decide to take a credit, keep in mind that the IRS will only let you claim only one type of education tax credit per student.
  • Claim your qualified education expenses. Be sure to keep track of the expenses you paid toward tuition and student activity fees that were paid to complete enrollment. According to the IRS, you can make a claim if you paid for any of these expenses with cash, check, a credit or debit card or with money secured from a loan. If you will be taking the American Opportunity Tax Credit, expenses for books, supplies and course equipment are also considered a qualified education expense.
  • Don’t forget your 1098-T. This form, in addition to your receipts, is critical to claim a tax credit. Most schools will send this to you in the mail. Don’t be surprised if the amount on your form doesn’t match your numbers. The 1098-T doesn’t include items such as textbooks.

College doesn’t have to break the bank. To learn more about your college saving options, email Rea & Associates. Our team of tax professionals can guide you through the tax credit process and other college savings options.

Author: Brian Kempf, CPA (Millersburg)

 

Related Articles:

Saving For College? Use Sallie Mae’s New Mobile App

What You Should Know Before Dipping Into Your 401(k)

Have You Determined A Beneficiary For Your Retirement Plan?

Share Button